Mumbai (m ʊ m ˈ bɪ /; also known as Bombay, his official name until 1995) is the capital city of India's state Maharashtra. It is India's most densely populated city and the world's ninth-most agglomeration, with a population of the city estimated around 18.4 million people. Along with neighboring regions of the Mumbai Metropolitan Area, the city is one of the world's most dense urban and second-most metropolitan areas in India, with a population of 20.7 million per 2011. Mumbai is along India's western seaboard and has a deep natural port. In 2008, Mumbai was awarded the title of a global city. The city is also India's most prosperous city and has the highest gross domestic product GDP from any city in South Asia, West or Central. Mumbai has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires than the entire Indian city.
Clockwise from top: Cuffe Parade skylight, the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel, Terminal Chhatrapati Shivaji, Bandra-Worli Sea Bridge and India's Gate Road.
The City of Seven Islands, Dream City, Gate Road to India, Hollywood from India
Mumbai in Maharashtra, India
|Original Language||Marathi and Konkani|
|First time ever||1507 deaths|
|· Types||Mayor's Council|
|· Major||Snehal Ambear (Shiv Sena)|
|· Municipal Commissioner||Ajoy Mehta|
|· Megakota||603 km2 (233 sq mi)|
|· Metro||4,355 km2 (1,681.5 sq mi)|
|Altitude||14m (46 ft)|
|· Density||21,000/km2 ( 53.000/sq)|
|· Rank Metro||1st|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
400 001 to 400 107
|Vehicle plate||MH-01 (Middle), MH-02 (Western), MH-03 (East), MH-47 (North)|
The seven islands that enter the Mumbai region are home to the fishing colony. For centuries, the islands were under indigenous empire rule before falling into the hands of the Portuguese and then into the hands of the British East India Company when in 1661 King Charles II was married to the Yekaterina of Braganza, and as part of its longtime host, Charles was given Tangier and seven islands in Bombay. In the mid-18th century, Bombay, was recreated by the Hornby Vellard project, which was held to reclamate the region between the seven islands from the sea. Along with the construction of the roads and the railways, the land reclamation, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major port in the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterized by economic development and education. In the early 20th century, the city was a sturdy base for India's independence movement. After India's independence in 1947, the city was included in the State of Bombay. In 1960, after the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as its capital.
Mumbai is the capital of finance, commercial and entertainment in India. It was also one of the top ten commercial hubs of the world in terms of global financial flows, covering 6.16% of India's GDP and covering 25% of industrial spending, 70% of the maritime trade in India (Mumbai and JNPT), and 70% of the capital's transactions for India's economy. It contains influential financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the Indian National Stock Exchange, SEBI and headquarters of a number of Indian companies and multinational companies. The city is also home to some of India's main nuclear and scientific agencies such as BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI and the Atomic Energy Department. The city also houses Indian film and television industries Marathi and Hindi (Bollywood). The Mumbai business opportunity, and its potential offer high living standards, attracting migrant workers from across India, has forced the city to unleash the melting of several communities and cultures.
The name Mumbai comes from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—name of the patron goddess (Kuladewi) Mumbadewi of the Agri, Koli and Somwanshi Kshatriya — and View's means "mother" in Marathi, which is Mahartra's and Mahartra's official language.
The oldest known name for the city was Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these words are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) called the city Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese author Gaspar Correia used the name Bombaim, in her work Lendas da Índia ("Indian Legends"). The name is believed to come from the Old Portuguese phrase of the baim bomb, which means "nice little gulf" and Bombaim is still common in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa uses the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana shows up to refer to the combined Thane and Maiambu cities for Mumbadevi.
Other variations recorded in the 16th and 17th centuries included: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Monbaym (164), Mombam (156) 4), RunBambaye (1666),Bombaiim (1666),Bombeye (1676), Boon Bay (1690) and Bon Bahia. After Britain seized power over the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was officially demolished to Bombay.
In the late 20th century, the city was called Mumbai or Mambai in official state-level languages of India that include Marathi, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi, and as Bambaiin Hindi. The Indian government officially changed its British name to Mumbai in November 1995. The policy comes from the proposed nationalist party Marathi Shiv Sena, who won the Maharashtra state election, reflects similar names across the country and most of Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they contend that 'Bombay' is a British version torn up of 'Mumbai' and an undesirable legacy of the British colonial government." Slate also said that "the drive to rename Bombay is part of a bigger movement to strengthen the identity of Marathi in Maharashtra region." Although the city remains being called Bombay by some of its citizens and by Indians from other regions, the city's mentions with a name other than Mumbai have become controversial, produced in an emotional state sometimes generated by a nature of political violence.
The people of Mumbai are called mumbai in Marathi, where the end of the rigid means people. The term was used several times but has just gained fame after his official name was changed to Mumbai.
Mumbai has built on what once became an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and the Isle of Old Women (also known as Little Colaba). It is not known when the islands began to occupy. The Pleistocene sediments found along the coastal area around Kandivali, north of Mumbai have shown that the islands have been lived since the Stone Age. At the beginning of the Christian Age (2,000 years ago), or perhaps earlier, the region was occupied by the fisheries community of Koli.
In the third century BC, the islands were included as part of the Maurya Empire, in its export to the southern region, ruled by the Buddhist emperor, Asoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali were evacuated in the middle of the third century BC, and served as a crucial center of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times. It was called Heptanesia (Ancient Greek): Seven Islands) by Greek geographer Ptolemaeus on 150 AD. The expensive cave in Andheri was built between the 1st century BC and the 6th century M.
Between the second century BC and the ninth century M, the islands were under the indigenous dynasty were successive: Satawahana, West Kshatrapa, Abhira, Kalachuri, Konkan Maurya, Chalukya and Rashtrakuta, before being controlled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some of the oldest historic buildings in the city built during the period were, Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 and 525), Elephanta Caves (between sixth and seventh centuries), Walkeshwar Kuil (10th century) and Banganga Water Shelter (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom in the region at the end of the 13th century and founded his capital in Mahikawati (now Mahim). Pathare Prabhu, one of the earliest known settlers in the city, was sent to Mahikawati of Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. Delhi's Sultanate anattached the islands to 1347-48 and seized them to 1407. At the time, the islands were governed by Muslim Governor Gujarat, who was appointed by Delhi's Sultanate.
The islands were then ruled by the independent Gujarat Sultanate, established in 1407. The sultanate has led to construction of several mosques, which are known to be Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, which was built to honor the Muslim holy woman Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of a struggle between Gujarat Sultanate and Bahamani's Sultanate from Deccan. In 1493, Baha Khan Gilani of the Bahamani Sultanate tried to conquer the islands but lost.
Portuguese and English rule
The Mughal Empire, formed in 1526, was a force dominan on the Indian subcontinent in the mid 16th century. Upheaval concerns on Mughal Humayun's power have allowed Sultan Baha Shah of the Sultanate of Gujarat decided to sign a Bassein Treaty with the Portuguese Empire on December 23, 1534. Seven islands in Bombay, the closest strategic city of Bassein and his depetations are given to the Portuguese. The Territorial was then distributed on October 25, 1535.
The Portuguese was active in the creation and growth of their Roman Catholic orders in Bombay. They called the islands in various names, which eventually took the form of Bombaim writing. The islands were contained by several Portuguese officers during their rezantine. The Portuguese franchise and Jesuit built several churches in the city, notorious for Saint Michael's Church in Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church in Andheri (1579), Saint Andreas Church in Bandra (1580), and his Glor Church in Byculla (1632). The Portuguese also built several citations around the city such as the Bombay, Castella de Aguada (Castelo and Aguada or Benteng Bandra) and the Madh Fort. The British are constantly struggling against the Portuguese on the hegemony of Bombay, as they recognize its strategic natural port and its natural isolation from ground attacks. By the mid-17th century, the growth of the Dutch Empire's forces forced Britain to acquire a station in western India. On May 11, 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of Britain and the Yekaterina of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, made the islands into parts of the British Empire as part of the Yekaterina crown to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi and Wadala remain in Portuguese rule. From 1665 to 1666, Britain decided to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi and Wadala.
Regarding the Royal Charter of March 27, 1668, Britain rented them to British East India Company in 1668 with a £10-a-year bill. The population grew from 10,000 in 1661 to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were attacked by Yakut Khan, admiral Siddi of the Mughal Empire, in October 1672, Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies on February 20, 1673, and the Siddi Sambal admiral on October 10, 1673.
In 1687, the British East India Company moved its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city was then the headquarters of the presidential institute Bombay. After the move, Bombay was placed as head of all branches of the Company in India. Until the end of the 17th century, it had regained its attack from Yakut Khan in 1689-90. The Portuguese power came to Bombay when Maratha's men under the hwa Baji Rao I took down Salsette in 1737 and Bassein in 1739. By the mid-18th century, Bombay began growing into a big trading city, reaching a large number of migrants from all over India. Then, the British occupied Salsette on December 28, 1774. With the Letter Treaty (1775), Britain is officially in control of Salsette and Bassein, which led to the First Anglo-Maratha War. Britain can secure Salsette from Maratha's nonviolent force through the Purandar Treaty (1776), and then through the Salbai Treaty (1782), was signed to determine the outcome of the First Anglo-Maratha War.
From 1782 and so on, the city was reshuffled by large-scale civil engineering projects in order to combine seven islands into a single land. The project, known as Hornby Vellard, was completed in 1784. In 1817, the British East India Company, under the head of Mountstuart Elphinstone, defeated Baji Rao II, hwa Maratha's last Pestilence in the Battle of Khadki. After his defeat, almost all Deccan regions were under British sovereignty, and included in the Bombay presidential office. The success of the British campaign in Deccan marked the release of Bombay from all attacks by indigenous forces.
In 1845, the seven islands had been joined into a single land by the Hornby Vellard project through large-scale reclamation of laps. On April 16, 1853, the first passenger train line in India was established, connecting Bombay to the neighboring Thana (now Thane) city. In the American Civil War (1861-1865), the city became the world's leading cottonseed trade market, causing economic explosions that then increased living standards in the city.
Suez Canal bukaan in 1869 made Bombay one of the largest ports in the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was attacked by a bubonic bubonic bubonic plague that killed about 1,900 people a week. About 850,000 people left in Bombay and the textile industry was affected. As the capital of the presidential office of Bombay, the city witnessed India's independence movement, with the Indian Outbound Movement in 1942 and the 1946 Attacks of the Royal Indian Navy becoming its most famous event.
After India's independence in 1947, the presidential territorial Bombay was retained by India to be restructured into the State of Bombay. The increasing region of Bombay State after several kingdom regions joined the Indian union were integrated into the state. The city became the capital of Bombay State. In April 1950, the municipal boundary of Bombay was expanded by combining the Suburban District of Bombay and Bombay City to form a Big Bombay Munisipal Company.
The Samyukta Maharashtra movement to create a separate Maharashtra state that includes Bombay peaks in the 1950s. During the 1955 Lok Sabha discussion, the Congress party said the city was made into an autonomous country. The State Reorganization Committee recommended a dual-language state for Maharashtra-Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizenship Committee, an okasi advisory group leading the industrialist Gujarati supported the independent status of Bombay.
Following protests in the movement in which 105 was killed in clashes with police, the State of Bombay was reorganized based on a linguistic line on May 1, 1960. Gujarati-language region of the State of Bombay was split into the state of Gujarat. The state of Maharashtra with Bombay as its capital was formed by a merger of Marathi from the State of Bombay, eight districts of Central and Berar provinces, five districts of Hyderabad's State and a number of kingdom regions adjacent to the region. In memory of the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement, Flora Fountain was renamed Hutatma Chowk (Martyr Square), and a monument was established.
In the next few decades, massive expansion was taking place in the city and its sub-urban areas. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade direk slow and developed. The Mumbai Metropolitan Area Development Authority was established Jan. 26, 1975, by Maharashtra government as a planning and coordinating development activity in the Bombay metropolitan area. In August 1979, a municipality saudari New Bombay was formed by the Industrial and Urban Development Company along Thane district and the Raigad district to help control the population in Bombay. Textile industry in Bombay was largely lost after the outbreak of the 1982 Big Bombay Textile Attack, with around 250,000 workers at more than 50 textile factories involved. The Mumbai cottage plants that have been disbanded since have focused on intense redevelopment.
The port of Jawaharlal Nehru, now 55-60% of cargo container in India, was opened on May 26, 1989 along the river in Nhava Sheva with a view of the Port of Bombay and served as a port center for the city. The Great Bombay geography boundaries are aligned with the Great Bombay Municipal border. On 1 October 1, 1990, the large Bombay district was created to form two districts named Bombay City and Suburban Bombay, although they were kept in charge of the same Munisipal Administration.
From 1990 to 2010, violence has escalated in the very peaceful city. After the destruction of Babri Mosque in Ayodhya, the city was ravaged by the 1992-93 Hindu-Muslim riot where more than 1,000 people were killed. On March 12, 1993, a series of 13 planned bombings in several area towns by Islamic extremists and the underground Mumbai subway resulted in 257 deaths and more than 700 people injured. In 2006, 209 people were killed and more than 700 wounded when seven bombs exploded on commuter trains in the city. In 2008, a series of ten planned attacks by armed terrorists over the three days left 173 people dead, 308 wounded, and several land parcels of heritage and prestigious hotels are severely damaged. An explosion that occurred at Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar and Dadar on July 13, 2011, was a series of the latest terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Mumbai is the commercial capital of India and has been involved as a world financial center. For decades, the city has been home to key financial services in India, and a focus on infrastructure and personal investment. From the ancient fisheries community and the colonial trade center, Mumbai has become the largest city in South Asia and home to the world's most productive film industry.
Mumbai has two different regions: The Mumbai District and the Suburban District of Mumbai have created two separate districts in Maharashtra. The contest district is also generally named as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total area of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). The size of the island is 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while its suburban district covers 370 km2 (143 sq mi), while another 437,71 km2 (169 sq meters) area under the guidance of the Large Mumbai Munisipal Corporation (PMMB). The remaining areas include the defense facilities, the Mumbai Harbor, the Borivali Atomic Energy Commission and National Park, which are outside the PMMB shelter.
Mumbai spread out at the mouth of the Ulhas River on India's western seaboard, known as Konkan. The area sat on the island of Salsette, which some shared with Thane district. Mumbai borders the Arabian Sea in the west. Some parts of the city are situated at sea level, from 10 meters (33 feet) to 15 meters (49 feet); the city averages 14 meters (46 feet). North Mumbai (Salsette) is a hilly area, and the city's highest point is 450 meters (1,476 feet) in Salsette in the Powai-Kanheri series. The Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is partly in the suburban district of Mumbai, and partly in Thane district, and has an area of 103.09 km 2 (39.80 square miles).
Besides Dam Bhatsa, there are six large lakes which supplies water to the city: Vihar, Vaitarna Hilir, Vaitarna Hulu, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Lake Tulsi and Lake Vihar are situated at the Borivili National Park, which lies within the city's boundaries, Supply of Lake Powai, which also falls within the boundaries of this city, is only used for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) run from the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Lake Tulsi and collects the water flowing from Lake Vihar and Powai. The city's shoreline is surrounded by a number of rivers and gulf, from the Thane River in the east to the Madh Marve in the west. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered by large mangrove marshes, which are rich in kean biodiversity, while its west coast is predominantly sandy and rocky.
The land covering the area of the city is generally sand because it is adjacent to the sea. In subcities, land covering parts of aluvial and around. The rocks in the region consist of layers of black Decade basalt, and with varied acid and base content originated from end of Cretaceus era and the beginnings of Eocene. Mumbai is in a seismic active zone passed 23 fault lines in the surrounding region. It is classified as a III Seismic Zone area, which can mean an earthquake berk 6.5 uatan on the Richter scale.
Mumbai has a tropical climate, particularly wet and tropical dry climate (Aw) under the Köppen's climate classification, with seven months of drought and rainfall peaks in July. The winter from December to February is followed by summer from March to June. Period from June to around the end of September lasted southwest seasons, and October and November set up a post-season season.
Between June and September, the southwest musons invaded the city. A pre-monsoon shower occurred in May. Normally, the Northeast Monsoon showers occurred in October and November. Maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3452 mm (136 in) in 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a day was 944 mm (37 in) on July 26, 2005. The average annual rainfall was 2146.6 mm (85 in) for the island city, and 2457 mm (97 in) for sub-urban activities.
The average annual temperature is 27.2°C (81°F), and the average annual precipitation is 2167 mm (85 in). In the island city, the maximum temperature is 31.2°C (88°F), while the average temperature is 23.7°C (75°F). In sub-urban, the maximum daily temperature is from 29.1°C (84°F) to 33.3°C (92°F), while the minimum temperature is from 16.3°C (61°F) to 26.2°C (79°F). The record is 42.2°C (108°F) that occurred on April 14, 1952, and the lowest record was 7.4°C (45°F) that occurred on January 27, 1962.
|Mumbai (Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport)|
|Month||of Neh||Feb||of Gen||Apr||May||Jun||Jul||Aug||Hedar||Oct||Nov||of Dec||Year|
|°C highest record (°)||37.1 |
|41:00 PM |
|3:5 PM |
|°C highest average (°)||30.7 |
|3:00 PM |
|3:33 p.m. |
|3:2 PM |
|3:5 PM |
|32:00 PM |
|Lowest average°C (°)||16:8 |
|1:00 PM |
|1:9 PM |
|5:30 PM |
|5:00 PM |
|5:30 PM |
|3:4 PM |
|9:20 PM |
|Low°C record (°)||7.4 |
|1:8 PM |
|16:9 PM |
|1:20 PM |
|1:21 p.m. |
|7:20 PM |
|1:3 PM |
|Mm rainfall (inches)||0.6 |
|529:7 p.m. |
|Average rainy day||.1||.1||.0||.1||7.0||4:5 PM||1:23 p.m.||1:4 PM||14:4||3:0||1:0||1.4||78:9|
|% of humidity||69||67||69||71||70||80||86||86||83||78||71||69||75|
|Monthly sunlight average||9:50 PM||257:6||74:3||283:7||296:2||148:6||73:4||75:9||165:1||9:240:2||245:8||253:2||2,583.5|
|#1 Source: India Meteorological Department (Period 1961-1990, record high and low up to 2010)|
|#2 Source: NOAA, sun 1971-1990)|
Mumbai is India's largest city based on its population and financial center and commercial sources, which contributed 6.16% of the total GDP. It served as an economic center in India, which contributed 10 percent of the factory's work, 25 percent of the industrial expenditure, 33 percent of the income tax revenue, 60 percent of the customs revenue, 20 percent of the central excise revenue, 40 percent of India's foreign trade and 4,000 (U.S. $560 million in corporate tax). Along with other parts of India, Mumbai has been a mute witness to economic explosions since liberalization in 1991, financial explosions in the mid-19th century and setting up IT, exports, services and resorts in the 2000s. Although Mumbai was known as the center of India's economic activity in the 1990s, the Mumbai Metropolitan Area is now a silent witness to the reduction in its contribution in India's GDP.
In October 2015, the Mumbai GDP was $278 billion (from 2014). and her per capita income (PPP) in 2009 was 486,0000 (US$6,800), which is about three times national average. Income per capita nominal is ₹125,000 (US$1,800), (US$2,094). A number of Indian contentiles (including Larsen and Toubro, State Bank of India (SBI), Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC), Tata Group, Godrej and Reliance) and five Mumbai-based Fortune Global 500 companies. The situation was facilitated by the presence of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), the Indian National Stock Exchange (BSN) and regulators of financial sector such as the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).
By the 1970s, Mumbai was largely reserved for textile and port factories, but since then local economies have been divided into financial, engineering, diamond ordering, health care and information technology. Key sectors that contribute to the economy of the city are: finance, australia & jewels, the processing of animals, IT and ITES, textile and entertainment. Nariman Point and Bandra Kurla Complex are the main financial center of Mumbai. In addition to competing with alore Bangladesh, Hyderabad and Pune, Mumbai also engraved its own achievement in the information technology industry. The Santacruz Exports Processing Zone and the International Infotech Park (Mumbai Navi) offered quality facilities for IT companies.
State and central government officials include a large percentage of the city's workforce pek. Mumbai also has a large number of semi-skilled and unskilled workers who mostly earn a living as street vendors, taxi drivers, mechanics and other blue-collar professions. Shipping and port industries were also established, with the Mumbai Harbor one of the most important and oldest ports in India. Dharavi, in the middle of Mumbai, has experienced an increase in the large recycle industry, which is treating recyclable wastes from other parts of the city; the district has about 15,000 single room manufacturers.
Mumbai reached the sixth of the top ten global cities in terms of its number of billionaires, the 48th in the World Commercial Center Index 2008, seventh in the list "Ten Big City for the Billionaire" according to Forbes magazine (April 2008), and the first in terms of the average domestic wealth. By 2008, the Globalization and World Cities Study Group (GaWC) organized Mumbai as an "alpha world city", third in its category from global cities. Mumbai was the world's third-most expensive market, and became one of the fastest cities in the country to start business in 2009.
Mumbai Besar, a 603-square-kilometer (233 sq mi) region, comprises of the Mumbai-City district and the Suburban Mumbai, which borders Colaba in the southern region, Mulund and Dahisar in the north, and Mankhurd in the east. The population according to the 2011 census was 12,442.373.
The region is organized by the PMMB (PMMB) Mumbai Munisipal Company (sometimes called a Brihanmumbai Munisipal Company), which was initially known as Munisipal Bombay (PMB) Company. PMMB will take care of community needs and infrastructure in metropolis. The mayor was elected via an indirect vote by the chancellors of one of their own members for a term of two and a half years.
Munisipal Committee is Chief Executive Officer and chief executive officer of Munisipal Company. All of the executive force is under Munisipal Committee's mandate, which is the Indian Administrative Service official chosen by the state government. Although Munisipal Company is a legislative body which issues policies to the city administration, the commissioner who is in charge of implementing those policies. Commissioners were selected for a legalized tenure according to the state law. The power of the Commissioner is the people who are provided by the rules and people who are deleg by the Establishment Committee Company.
The Mumbai Large Municipal Corporation resides in the 9th place of 21 cities with best practices and governance in India in 2014. The city won a score 3.5 out of 10 compared to the national average of 3.3.
Two districts in Mumbai are under the jurisdiction of the District Collector. The Collector Board had the duty to record properties and a collection of income for the central government and to monitor national elections held in the city.
The Mumbai police were headed by a Police Commissioner, an Indian Police Service Officer (PPI). The Mumbai police were a division of the Maharashtra Police under the state's Ministry of Home Affairs. The city is divided into seven police zones and seventeen traffic police zones, each headed by a Deputy Police Commissioner. The traffic police is a semi-autonomous body that is under the control of the Mumbai Police. The Mumbai Fire Brigade, which was under the jurisdiction of Munisipal Company, is headed by the Fire Officer, aided by four Deputy Fire Officer and six Division Officers.
Mumbai is the seat of the Bombay High Council, which holds jurisdiction over the state of Maharashtra and Goa, and the United Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Mumbai also has two low boards, Small Cause Council for Civil Affairs and Session Council for criminal cases. Mumbai also has a Board of Intrusion Activities and Terrorists specifically for people charged with conspiracy and engaging in acts of terrorism in the city.
Mumbai is the founder of India's National Congress known as the Congress Party. The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay from 28 to 31 December 1885. Mumbai has hosted the Indian National Congress for six times in the first 50 years and became the growth center for India's 20th century independence movement.
In 1960am, there was a regional political buildup in Bombay, with the formation of Shiv Sena on June 19, 1966, a move which has been fighting for marginalization against the Marathi tribes in Bombay. Shiv Sena took a turn from 'Marathi's Interests' to 'Hindutva's interests' in 1985 and joined the Bhartiya Janata (PBJ) party the same year. The Congress Party has dominated Bombay's politics from independence until the early 1980s, when Shiv Sena won the election of Munisipal Bombay Company 1985.
In 1989, the Bharatiya Janata Party (PBJ), a major national political party, created an electoral alliance with Shiv Sena to compete with Congress parties in the Maharashtra Legis-affiliated Council election. In 1999, some members left the Congress party to form the Nationalist Congress Party (PKN) but later joined the Congress party as part of an alliance known as the Democratic Front. Currently, other parties such as Maharashtra Navnirman Sena (MNS), the Samajwadi Party (PS), the Bahujan Samaj Party (PBS) and independent candidates are participating in the city's elections.
In India's national election held every five years, Mumbai is represented by six parliamentary constituencies: North, Northwest, Northeast, Middle North, Southern and South Central. A Member of parliament for the Lok Sabha, India's Parliament's lower house, was named from each parliamentary constituency. In the 2014 national election, all six parliamentary constituencies were won by the PBJ and Shiv Sena in an alliance with the two parties won three seats each.
In the election of the Maharashtra state council held every five years, Mumbai is represented by 36 constituencies of the assembly. An alternative Legis Assembly member for the Maharashtra Vidhan Sabha (Legis Assembly) was chosen from each constituency of the assembly. In the 2014 state council election, of the 36 constituencies of the assembly, 15 were won by the PBJ, 14 by Shiv Sena and 5 by the Congress party.
Elections are also held every five years to have the corporators-corporators to power in the PMMB. The company consists of 227 Chancellors that were directly elected to the 24-region of municipalities, five chancellor who were nominated had a special knowledge or experience in the municipality government, and a mayor who was instrumental in most of the events. In the 2012 municipal company election, of 227 seats, the alliance Shiv Sena-PBJ reached 107, gaining power with the support of independent candidates in the PMMB, while the Congress-PKN party alliance reached 64 seats. The term of the mayor, the deputy mayor, and Munisipal commissioner is two and a half years.
The public transport system in Mumbai includes the Mumbai Suburban Railways, Mumbai Monorel, Metro Mumbai, Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport buses (BEST), black and yellow meters of taxis, bajaj and feri. Suburban railway and best bus service best serve around 88% passenger traffic in 2008. Bajaj is only allowed to operate in the suburban areas of Mumbai, while taxi is allowed to operate throughout Mumbai, generally operates in South Mumbai. The taxi and Steel in Mumbai are governed by the law to be carried out using compressed natural gas, and is an easy fuel to install, economical and easily acquired.
The Mumbai Suburban Railways, known as the locals, have been the backbone of the city's transport system. The route is operated by the Western Railways Zone and the Central Railways Train Line from India's Railways. The Mumbai suburban train system carried 6.3 million passengers a day on 2007, exceeding half the capacity of the railroad tracks daily. The trains became more crowded during the peak hours, with nine coaches able to carry as many as 1,700 passengers, which actually picked up around 4,500 passengers at the peak hours. The Mumbai train network rose on the route as far as 319 kilometers. 191 train sets from the composition of 9 cars and 12 carriages have provided some 2,226 train service in the city.
The Mumbai and Mumbai Metro monorail was built and established in order to ease density on existing networks. Monorail opened in early February 2014. The first Mumbai Metro line opened in early June 2014.
Mumbai is the headquarters of two zones from the Indian Railways: The Central Railways, headquartered at Terminal Chhatrapati Shivaji (originally Terminal Victoria), and the West Train Line is based in Churchgate. Mumbai is also linked to much of India by the Indian railways. The long-range trains came from the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal, Dadar, its Lok Terminal, Central Mumbai, Bandra Terminal, Andheri and Borivali.
The Mumbai bus service transported more than 5.5 million passengers per day in 2008, which fell to 2.8 million in 2015. General buses are run by BEST serving almost all parts of the metropolis, and the Navi Mumbai, Mira-Bhayandar and Thane region. BEST operates 4,608 buses whose CCTV cameras are mounted, transporting 4.5 million passengers per day at more than 390 routes. The fleet consists of single chairs, double chairs, front rooms, basement, special rooms of special needs people, air conditioners and diesel-powered buses of Euro III and compressed natural gas. BEST introduces air-cooled buses in 1998. The BEST buses are red, based on the Routemaster bus in London. The buses of the Maharashtra State Highway Transportation Company provide inter-city transportation that connects Mumbai to other cities in Maharashtra and surrounding states. The Mumbai Metro Municipal Transportation and Munisipal Thane also operate their buses in Mumbai, linking the dots of Mumbai and Thane to the other parts of Mumbai.
Buses are generally liked because they run fast for medium distance, while trains are economical for long distance travel.
Mumbai Darshan is a tourist pari bus service which delivers them to various tourist attractions in Mumbai. The Bus Rapid Transit System Path has been planned across Mumbai. Although 88% of the trips in the city use public transport, Mumbai still faces problems of traffic jams. The Mumbai transportation system is classified as one of the world's most clogged transportation systems.
The water transport in Mumbai consists of ferry, air-bearer and sail ships. The services are provided by government agencies and private partners. Air-bearer service opened in the late 1990s between the Indian Gateway and CBD Belapur in Mumbai Navi. These services were then pulled out because of insufficient infrastructure.
Mumbai is served by the National Highway 3, National Highway 4, National Highway 8, National Highway 17 and National Highway 222 from the National Highway System in India. The Mumbai-Pune Express Road is the first expressive road built in India. East Free Street opened in 2013. The Mumbai Nashik Express Road, the Mumbai-Vadoair Express Road, is under construction. The Bandra-Worli Sea Bridge, along with the Mahim Connective Road, linked the island city with its western sub-urban. The city's three main street artists are the East Express Highway from Sion to Thane, Sion Panvel Express from Sion to Panvel and the West Express Highway from Bandra to Dahisar. Mumbai has approximately 1900 km (1181 mi) of roads. There are five tool entry points for the city by road.
Mumbai had about 721,000 private vehicles in March 2014, 56,459 black and yellow taxis per 2005, and 106,000 bajaj in May 2013.
Sahar International Airport is the city's main aerospace center and the second busiest airport in passenger traffic. It handled 36.6 million passengers and 694,300 tonnes of Unholds 2014-2015. An expansion plan was initiated in 2006, targeting capacity building for the airport to handle 40 million passengers each year and the new T2 terminal was opened in February 2014.
The Navi International Airport built in the Kopra-Panvel region was approved by the Indian government and helped ease traffic increases at the available airport.
Juhu Aerodrome is India's first airport, and is now tutoring Bombay Flying Club and a state-owned Pawan Hans helicopter landing site.
Mumbai has been served by two large ports, the Mumbai Harbor and the Jawaharlal Nehru Port, extending across the river in Mumbai Navi. Mumbai's port has one of the best natural ports in the world and has extensive dry and wet accommodation facilities. The port of Jawaharlal Nehru, opened May 26, 1989, is India's busiest, most modern port. The port handles 55-60% of the total cargo container in the country. Ferry Wharf in Mazagaon is allowed to sail to the islands near the city.
The city is also the headquarters of the Western Naval Command and the Indian Navy's important bases.
During the colonial rule, water shelters were the only water source in Mumbai, with some localities removed from them. The Mumbai Munisipal Company supplies portable water to the city of six lakes, most of which come from Lake Tulsi and Vihar. Lake Tansa supplies water for western suburban and parts of the island's city along the West Railways. The water was filtered on Bhandup, which is the largest emitter of water filtration in Asia. The first underground water tunnel in India has been built in Mumbai to supply water into the filtration facility of Bhandup.
About 700 million liters of water, from a 3500 million liters daily supply, was lost by water theft, illegal connections and leaks, per day in Mumbai. Nearly every day, Mumbai produces about 7,800 metric tons of trash, 40 metric tons of them are plastic waste, which is carried to garbage shelters in Gorai in the northwestern part of the country, Mulund in the northeastern part, and to the Deonar garbage dump in the east. The processing of poop was done in Worli and Bandra, and it was made to two separate river estuaries that were along 3.4 km (2.1 mi) and 3.7 km (2.3 mi) in Bandra and Worli.
The electricity was distributed by Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport (BEST) which handles the island's city, and by Reliance Energy, Tata Power, and Maharashtra State Electricity Co. Ltd (Mahavitaran) in sub-urban subcities. Electricity consumption grows faster than production capacity. Electrical cables were underground, to avoid theft and other loss.
Gas comprised in the form of LPG which is sold by state-owned oil companies and liquid natural gas which is supplied by Mahanagar Gas Limited.
The biggest service provider is the state-owned MTN L, which holds a monopoly on fixed cellular and network services up to 2000, and provides fixed network services and the Mobile Net Fixed Telephone Network. The mobile phone lap is extensive, and its main service providers are Vodafone Essar, Airtel, MTN L, Loop Mobile, Reliance Communications, Cellular and Tata Indicom. GSM and CDMA services are available in the city. Mumbai, along with the areas serviced by phone reefs in Mumbai and Kalyan are classified as a Metro telecom ring. Several foreign service providers also provide wireless internet access and wireless internet access in Mumbai. By 2014, Mumbai has the highest number of Internet users in India with 16.4 million users.
The architecture of the city is a mixture of Gothic Revival, Indo-Sarakenic, Art Deco and other contemporary styles. Most buildings from the British colonial era, such as Terminal Victoria and Bombay University, were built in Gothik's Revival style. Its architectural features include various European influences, such as German roofs, Dutch roofs, Swiss engkung, Romantic, Tudor windows, and traditional Indian features. There are also some Indo-Sarakenic-style buildings such as the Indian Gate. Art Deco-style land markers can be found along Marine Drive and west of the Oval Man. Mumbai has the second largest Art Deco building in the world after Miami. In new subcities, modern buildings dominate the landscape. Mumbai has so far the largest skyscraper in India, with 956 buildings already standing and 272 still built per 2009.
The Mumbai Heritage Committee (KKWM), established in 1995, formulated special provisions and laws to help the conservation of heritage structures in the city. Mumbai has two World Heritage Sites, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminal and Elephanta Caves. South of Mumbai, you stand in the colonial era buildings and the Soviet-style offices. In the east, you have the factories and you have some slums. On the West coast, former textile factories were demolished and skyscrapers were built on top of them. There are 31 buildings taller than 100 meters, compared to 200 buildings in Shanghai, 500 buildings in Hong Kong and 500 buildings in New York.
Data based on
The Census of the Indian Government.
According to the 2011 census, the population of Mumbai was 12,479,608 people. Population density is estimated at about 20.482 people per square kilometer. The living room is 4.5 square meters per person. According to the 2011 census, Mumbai Besar, the regions under the MCGM deal, have a 94.7% literacy rate higher than the national average 86.7%. The total population of its occupants is estimated at 9 million, up from 6 million in 2001, which means 62% of all Mumbai residents live in unfit slums.
The 2011 Sex ratio is 838 women per 1,000 men in the island city, 857 in subcities, and 848 in total Mumbai — all the number is lower than the national average of 914 women per 1,000 men. The low sex ratio is partly due to the large number of male migrants who come to the city for work.
Mumbai residents call themselves Mumbaiite, Mumbaiite, Bombayiteor the RunBombaiite. Mumbai has a large number of polyglot populations, like many other metropolitan towns in India. The first seventeen languages of India are also spoken in Mumbai, the most common ones are Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati and English. English is widely used and is the main language for white-collar workers in the city. A unique form of Hindi, known as Bambaiya - a mixture of Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Konkani, Urdu, English and several words created - used on the streets.
Mumbai has run into the same major urbanization problems as it has in some developing world cities: poor poverty and unemployment are abating, low public health and low educational standard for most people. Due to the sparse amount of land available, Mumbai residents often spend a lot of time squabbling, specifically signing houses, which are usually far from work, and expecting long paths to fascination, or smooth highways. Some of them live near bus or train stations even suburban residents regularly pass most of the time to visit the main commercial district. Dharavi, the second-largest slum in Asia (if Orangi Town in Karachi is considered a single slum) sits in the middle of Mumbai and occupied by between 800,000 to one million people within 2.39 square kilometers (0.92 sq mi), making it one of the most densely populated regions of the country with population at about 334.728 square kilometers [5 square miles. With a 69 percent literacy rate, the slums in Mumbai are the most literate urban in India.
Some of the migrants who arrived in Mumbai from outside Maharashtra in the 1991- 2001 numbered 1.12 million, which increased the 54.8% of the population in Mumbai.
The number of households in Mumbai will increase from 4.2 million in 2008 to 6.6 million by 2020. The annual income of 2 million rupees will increase from 4% to 10% in 2020, consisting of 660,000 families. The number of households with income from 1 to 2 million rupees is also expected to increase from 4% to 15% in 2020. According to the 2016 Central Pollution Control Board (BKPP) Report, Mumbai is India's busiest city, followed by Lucknow, Hyderabad and Delhi.
Ethnic groups and religion
|Religion in Large Mumbai (2011)|
The religious groups represented in Mumbai in 2011 included Hindus (65.99%), Muslims (20.65%), Buddhists (4.85%), Jain (4.10%), Christians (3.27%), Sikh (0.58%), with Parsi and Jews covering the rest of the population. The linguistic/technical demography is: Maharashtra (42%), Gujarat (19%), and the rest are from other parts of India.
Indigenous Christians include the Catholics of the Eastern Indian Catholics, who were converted from the Portuguese in the 16th century, while Goa and Mangalore Catholics are also significant in the city's Christian community. Jews lived in Bombay in the 18th century. The Israeli Bene Jewish community in Bombay, which migrated from Konkan village, south of Bombay, is believed to be a Jewish descendant in Israel ashore off the coast of Konkan, believed in 175 BC, during the ruling Greek Antiochus IV Epifanes. Mumbai is also home to the world's largest zoroastrian population, which numbers some 80,000. The Parsi migrated to India from Pars (Persia/Iran) after the Muslim conquest in Persia in the seventh century. The oldest Muslim community in Mumbai included Dawoodi Bohra, Ismaili Khoja and Konkani Muslims.
The Mumbai culture is a blend of traditional festival, food, music and theater. It offers a diverse and cosmopolitan lifestyle of diverse food, entertainment and night life, available in form and abundance in comparison to the other capitals of the world. The history of Mumbai is a major trading center that has led to the diversity of culture, religion and food found in the city. The unique cultural mixture was caused by the migration of people from around India since Britain's colonial times.
Mumbai is the birthplace of the Indian cinema—Dadasaheb Phalke led the establishment with silent movies followed by bersuara Marathi films—and the oldest of the films held in the early 20th century. Mumbai also has a large number of large display templates in Bollywood, Marathi and Hollywood films. The Mumbai International Film Festival and the Filmfare Awards, the most influential and oldest film awards given to the Indian film industry in India were held in Mumbai. Although, a major professional theater group formed in the British Empire was dispersed in the 1950s, Mumbai developed a "theater movement" tradition in Marathi, Hindi, English and other regional languages.
Contemporary art appears both in government-funded art domains as well as private commercial galleries. Government-funded institutions include the Jehangir Art Gallery and the National Gallery of Modern Art. Built in 1833, the Bombay Asiatic Association was one of the oldest public libraries in the city. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Vastu Sangrahalaya (originally The Prince of Wales Museum) is a famous museum in South Mumbai storing rare artifacts throughout India's history.
Mumbai has a zoo called Jijamata Udyaan (originally Victoria Gardens), which is also surrounded by a park. The tradition of rich literature in the city is highlighted internationally by the winner of the Salman Rushdie Prize, Aravind Adiga. Marathi's literature has been modernized in Mumbai-based authors such as Mohan Apte, Anant Kanekar and Gangadhar Gadgil, and promoted through the Annual Academy Sahitya Award, a literary award decorated by the Indian National Academy.
The Mumbai people celebrated India and the West. Diwali, Holi, Eid al Fitri, Christmas, Navratri, Good Friday, Dussera, Moharram, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga Puja and Maha Shivratri are among the popular celebrations of the city's Kala Ghoda Art Festival are an exhibition in the arts world that featured artists in the fields of music, dance, theater and film. An annual celebration which took place for a week known as Bandra Celebration, which began the following week after September 8, was included by people from all beliefs, in the observance of the Birth of Mary, Jesus' mother, on Sept. 8.
The Banganga Festival is a two-day music festival, held each year in January, organized by the Maharashtra Pari Travel Development Company at the Banganga Water Shelter in Mumbai. The Elephanta — was celebrated every February in Elephanta Island — it's aimed at classic Indian music and dance players from around the country. The city's special public holidays and states included Maharashtra Day on May 1, celebrating the formation of the state of Maharashtra on May 1, 1960, and Gudi Padwa, the New Year's Day for Marathi.
The beaches are the city's main resort. The main beaches in Mumbai are Girgaum Chowpatty, Juhu Beach, Dadar Chowpatty, Gorai Beach, Marve Beach, Versova, Madh Beach, Aksa Beach and Manori Beach. Most beaches are used for swimming, except for Girgaum Chowpatty and Juhu Beach. Essel World is a playground and a nearby entertainment center with Gorai Beach, and includes the largest water tourist park in Asia, the Water Kingdom. The Adlabs Imagica opened in April 2013 is located near the town of Khopoli off the Mumbai-Pune Express Street.
Mumbai has several newspaper publications, television and radio stations. Marathi's daily enjoys a maximum division of readers in the city and celebrated Marathi-language newspapers are Maharashtra Times, Navakaal, Lokmat, satta's,Mumbai Chaufer, Saamana and Sakaal. The popular Marathi-language magazine is Saptahik Sakaal, Grihashobhika, Lok rajya, ShowLok prabha& poorChitralekha. Popular English-language newspapers published and sold in Mumbai include The Times of India, Mid-day, Hindustan Times, IndianDNAandThe Indian Express. The newspapers also print the other Indian languages. Mumbai is home to the oldest Asian newspaper Bombay Samachar, which has been published in Gujarati since 1822. Bombay Durpan, the first Marathi newspaper, started by Balshastri Jambhekar in Mumbai in 1832.
Some Indian and international television channels can be seen in Mumbai through one of the local cable or paid television companies. The metropolis is also the center of several international media companies, with several printing publications and news channels which have a huge impact. National television broadcaster, Doordarshan, provides two free terrestrial channels, while three large cable networks serve most of the households.
Most of the available cable channels include Zee Marathi, Zee Talkies, ETV Marathi, Star Pravah, Mi Marathi, DD Sahyadri (Marathi language channel), news channels such as ABP Colors, IBN-Lok mat, Zee 24 Majas, sports channels such as ESPN, Star Sports, national entertainment channels such as, Sony, TV and Star Plus, CNBC Awaaz, Zee Business, ET Now and Bloomberg UTV. News channels dedicated overall to Mumbai include the Sahara Samay Mumbai. Zing, a popular Bollywood gossip, is also based in Mumbai. Satellite television (DTH) caught a huge demand, because of its high marketing costs. The renowned DTH entertainment service in Mumbai includes Dish TV and Tata Sky.
There are twelve stations in Mumbai, with nine broadcasters in the FM format, and three All India Radio broadcasting stations in AM format. Mumbai also has access to commercial radio providers such as Sirius. Conditional Access systems started by Unity's government in 2006 received a low welcome in Mumbai because of its rivalry with its sister's technology services Direct-to-Home (DTH).
Bollywood, the Mumbai-based Hindi film industry, produces about 150-200 films a year. Bollywood's name is a mixture of Bombay and Hollywood. In the 2000s, Bollywood popularity flourished abroad. The fact creates a film-making project to improve the quality, emato synergy and innovative story streets and technical advances such as special and animation effects. Studios in Goregaon, including Film City, are home to most film-making processes. The city also houses Marathi's ilm industry which has gained fame in recent years and TV production companies.
The schools in Mumbai are "munisipal schools" (run by the PMMB) or private schools (run by institutions or individuals), which in some cases receive financial assistance from the government. These schools are affiliated with the following bodies
- State Council of Maharashtra (BPMMKNBM)
- Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations
- National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS)
- Central Board for Secondary Education
- International Baccalaureate (IB)
- International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE). Marathi or English are common instruction languages. Public schools run by the government provide several facilities, m but only the option for poor people who are unable to enter high-cost private schools.
The PMMB basic education system is Asia's largest urban primary education system. The PMMB operates 1,188 primary schools that will provide 485,531 students in eight languages (Marathi, Hindi, Gujarati, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada). The PMMB will also provide 55,576 melaku students in 49 midwives.
Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, students completed ten years of schooling and then spent two years in the junior college, where they selected one of three areas: art, commercial, or science. The process is followed by general ranking courses in the field of learning selected, or professional courses, such as law, technique and medicine. Most of the city's colonies are affiliated with the University of Mumbai, one of the world's largest universities in terms of grades.
The University of Mumbai is one of India's celebrated universities. It ranked 41st in the Big 50 Technical Schools in the world, according to the 2012 American Business Insider news broadcasting firm, and is the only university in that list from five BRICS countries including Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Additionally, the University of Mumbai ranked 5th on India's best University list, according to India Today in 2013 and ranked 62th in BRICS QS University in 2013, a principal university rating in five BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa). His top scores in QS University Rankings: BRICS is for papers per faculty (8th), employee reputation (20th) and quotes per paper (28th). Universities ranked 10th out of top universities in India by QS in 2013. With 7 out of the top 10 Indian universities involved pure science and technology, the university is India's 3rd best Multi Disiplinary University in rating from QS University.
The Indian Institute of Technology (Bombay), Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute (VJTI), the Institute of Chemical Technology University, is India's main engineering and technology school, and SNDT Women's University is another autonomous university in Mumbai. Thadomal Shahani Engineering College is the oldest and first class of private techniques associated with federal Mumbai University and also pioneers the first institute in the city university which offers post-graduate training courses in Computer Engineering, Information Technology, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology. Grant Medical College was established in 1845 and Seth G.S. Medical College. are the primary medical institute, each affiliated with Sir Jamshedjee Jeejeebhoy Group of itals Hospital and KEM Hospital. Mumbai is also the site of the National Institute for Industrial Engineering, Jamnalal Bajaj Institute of Management, Monsee jee Institute for Management and Research, S P Jain Institute of Social Sciences and several other management schools. The Government Law College and the Kolese Sydenham, each the oldest law and commercial colese in India, is based in Mumbai. Sir J's Art School. J. It's the oldest form of art in Mumbai.
Mumbai is the site of two influential research institutions: [[Tata Fundamental Research Institute]. and the Bhabha Atomic Research Center (PPAB). The PPAB operates CIRUS, a 40 MW nuclear research reactor at their facility in Trombay.
Crickets are more popular than other sports in the city. Because of the limited land, modification of version (commonly called guli cricket) is played everywhere. Mumbai is also the home of India's Cricket Control Board (BKKI) and the Indian Primary League (LPI). The Mumbai cricket team represented the city in the Ranji Trophy and won 40 titles, mostly by other teams. It's also represented by the Mumbai Indians in the Indian Premier League. The city has two international cricket fields, Wankhede Stadium and Brabourne Stadium. India's first cricket test match was played in Mumbai in Bombay Gymkhana. The biggest cricket race held by city so far is the 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup final held at Wankhede Stadium. Mumbai was the only city other than London to host the World Cup final and final of an ICC Championship Trophy held at Brabourne Stadium in 2006.
Football is another popular sport in the city, with popularity of the FIFA World Cup and the Premier League. In the Indian Super League, Mumbai City F represents the city; while in the I-League is hosted at Cooperage Ground, the city is represented by two teams: Mumbai FC and Air-India. When the Indian Football League was introduced in August 2011, Mumbai was named one of eight kot points to award a team for the opening season. Called the Mumbai Gladiators, the team's first season played in Pune in late 2012, and the team will be the first professional American football franchise in Mumbai. In the Hockey sport, Mumbai is the hosts of the Mumbai Marines and Mumbai Magicians, each in the World Series Hockey and Indian Hockey League. The city's games play at the Mahindra Hockey Stadium.
The Rugby is another emerging sport in Mumbai with the games held in Bombay Gymkhana from June to November.
Every February, Mumbai is racing derby at Mahalaxmi Racecourse. Derby, organized by Mcdowell, was also held in February at the Turf Club, Mumbai. In March 2004, the Mumbai Grand Prix was part of the F1 motorboat world championships and the F1 Indian Force F1 team's car was launched in the city in 2008. The city plans to build its own F1 racing place and many places in the city, where authorities plan to make the land Marve-Malad or Panvel-Kalyan homeland work as its zeroes. Where agreed upon, the race venue will be put together with a tour park where it ranges from 400 to 500 acres. In 2004, the annual Mumbai Marathon was established as part of "The Largest Racing in the World". Mumbai has also hosted Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open, the International Series event of the ATP World Tour, in 2006 and 2007.
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